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(ACSES077), The abundance of a renewable resource and how readily it can be replenished influence the rate at which it can be sustainably used at local, regional and global scales Density: The quantity of something per unit measure, especially per unit length, area, or volume. Typhoon: A tropical cyclone occurring in the western Pacific or Indian oceans. Spent Fuel: The uranium cores that are taken out of the nuclear power plant. A range of environmentalists and economists have proposed that an economic value be placed on ecosystem services in order to ensure that they are accounted for in business and policy decisions.

Commercial Breeding: Breeding animal and plants for commercial significance, such as breeding dogs, Storm water: Water that results from a storm; can cause flooding and contamination of sewers. The current agreed age of Earth is around 4.54 billion years. Fertilization: The process of union of two gametes whereby the somatic chromosome number is restored and the development of a new individual is initiated; addition of materials to soil to increase the available nutrient content. (ACSES038), Advances in science understanding in one field can influence other areas of science, technology and engineering Distillation: The extraction of volatile components of a mixture by the condensation and collection of the vapors that are produced as the mixture is heated.

This field mostly deals with water pollution and soil contamination. In this unit, students explore how the transfer and transformation of energy from the sun and Earth’s interior enable and control processes within and between the geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere.

Total Fertility Rate: The number of children born to an average woman in a population during reproductive life. The atmosphere and all of the processes that occur in it have a large impact on the environment, so it is extremely important to learn as much as we can about it. Nitrates: a) a salt or ester of nitric acid (b) sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate used as a fertilizer.

Incinerator: An apparatus, such as a furnace, for burning waste.

Basin: A large, bowl shaped depression in the surface of the land or ocean floor. Biological soil crusts are found globally in arid and semiarid environments, and are common in Australia. Ecosystem: A specific biological community and its physical environment interacting in an exchange of matter and energy. Resistant: The ability of an individual or community to resist being changed by potentially disruptive events. 1 watt = 1 joule/second; 1 joule = energy spent in one second when a current of 1 amp flows through a resistance of 1 ohm; 1 kilowatt – 1 000 watt


Scrubbers: An air pollution device that uses a spray of water or reactant or a dry process to trap pollutants in emissions. Temperature inversions: The temperature rising/falling in an atmospheric condition. Social Sciences.

Fax: 1800 982 118, © Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority, Conduct investigations, including using map and field location techniques and rock and soil sampling and identification procedures, safely, competently and methodically for the collection of valid and, Communicate to specific audiences and for specific purposes using appropriate language, genres and modes, including compilations of field, Science is a global enterprise that relies on clear communication, international conventions, peer review and reproducibility, Advances in science understanding in one field can influence other areas of science, technology and engineering, The use of scientific knowledge is influenced by social, economic, cultural and ethical considerations, The use of scientific knowledge may have beneficial and/or harmful and/or unintended consequences, Scientific knowledge can enable scientists to offer valid explanations and make reliable predictions, Observation of present day processes can be used to infer past events and processes by applying the Principle of Uniformitarianism, A relative geological time scale can be constructed using stratigraphic principles including superposition, cross cutting relationships, inclusions and correlation, Precise dates can be assigned to points on the relative geological time scale using, Earth has internally differentiated into a layered structure: a solid metallic inner core, a liquid metallic outer core and a silicate mantle and crust; the study of seismic waves and meteorites provides, Rocks are composed of characteristic assemblages of mineral crystals or grains that are formed through igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic processes, as part of the rock cycle, Soil formation requires interaction between atmospheric, geologic, hydrologic and biotic processes; soil is composed of rock and mineral particles, organic material, water, gases and living organisms, The atmosphere was derived from volcanic outgassing during cooling and differentiation of Earth and its composition has been significantly modified by the actions of photosynthesising organisms, The modern atmosphere has a layered structure characterised by changes in temperature: the troposphere, mesosphere, stratosphere and thermosphere, Water is present on the surface of Earth as a result of volcanic outgassing and impact by icy bodies from space; water occurs in three phases (solid, liquid, gas) on Earth’s surface, Water’s unique properties, including its boiling point, density in solid and liquid phase, surface tension and its ability to act a solvent, and its abundance at the surface of Earth make it an important component of Earth, Laboratory experimentation has informed theories that life emerged under anoxic atmospheric conditions in an aqueous mixture of inorganic compounds, either in a shallow water setting as a result of lightning strike or in an ocean floor setting due to hydrothermal activity, In any one location, the characteristics (for example, temperature, surface water, substrate, organisms, available light) and interactions of the atmosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere give rise to unique and dynamic communities, The characteristics of past environments and communities (for example, presence of water, nature of the substrate, organism assemblages) can be inferred from the, The diversification and proliferation of living organisms over time (for example, increases in marine animals in the Cambrian), and the catastrophic collapse of ecosystems (for example, the mass extinction event at the end of the Cretaceous) can be inferred from the fossil record, Conduct investigations, including using map and field location techniques and environmental sampling procedures, safely, competently and methodically for the collection of valid and, Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but can be transformed from one form to another (for example, kinetic, gravitational, thermal, light) and transferred between objects, Processes within and between Earth systems require energy that originates either from the sun or the interior of Earth, Thermal and light energy from the Sun drives important Earth processes including evaporation and photosynthesis, Transfers and transformations of heat and gravitational energy in Earth's interior drives the movement of tectonic plates through processes including mantle convection, plume formation and slab sinking, The net transfer of solar energy to Earth’s surface is influenced by its passage through the atmosphere, including impeded transfer of ultraviolet radiation to Earth’s surface due to its interaction with atmospheric ozone, and by the physical characteristics of Earth’s surface, including albedo, Most of the thermal radiation emitted from Earth’s surface passes back out into space but some is reflected or scattered by greenhouse gases back toward Earth; this additional surface warming produces a phenomenon known as the greenhouse effect, The movement of atmospheric air masses due to heating and cooling, and Earth’s rotation and revolution, cause systematic atmospheric circulation; this is the dominant mechanism for the transfer of thermal energy around Earth’s surface, The behaviour of the global oceans as a heat sink, and Earth’s rotation and revolution, cause systematic ocean currents; these are described by the global ocean conveyer, The interaction between Earth’s atmosphere and oceans changes over time and can result in anomalous global weather patterns, including El Nino and La Nina, Photosynthesis is the principal mechanism for the transformation of energy from the sun into energy forms that are useful for living things; net primary production is a description of the rate at which new, The availability of energy and matter are one of the main determinants of ecosystem, Biogeochemical cycling of matter, including nitrogen and phosphorus, involves the transfer and transformation of energy between the biosphere, geosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere, Energy is stored, transferred and transformed in the carbon cycle; biological elements, including living and dead organisms, store energy over relatively short timescales, and geological elements (for example, hydrocarbons, coal and kerogens) store energy for extended periods.


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