plantarum and protozoan parasite Eimeria tenella, respectively (Fig. Attempts have also been made to enhance mannitol production by homofermentative LAB. 1A). Also, Lactococcus lactis and S. thermophilus are two strains often used as starter cultures in the production of cheese. Studyrankers is a free educational platform for cbse k-12 students. (b) H2S, C6H12O6 and energy (d) all of these (d) all of these Perna FM, Ricci MA, Scilimati A et al. Lactic acid is the major product of this fermentation. All bacteria of this genus have a heterofermentative mode of metabolism. (a) total organic matter Except for some bacteria that secrete amylases and have the ability to utilize starch directly (Reddy et al.2008), LAB, in general, do not accept polysaccharides as substrates, thus a hydrolysis step normally precedes fermentation or can be performed simultaneously (SSF, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation) using externally added enzymes. in P. acidilactici and Lb. While the other genera of lactic acid bacteria rarely cause disease, Streptococcus pyogenes is a common, troublesome pathogen, causing strep throat and rheumatic fever. (B) Phosphoketolase (PK) pathway showing the metabolism under standard fermentation conditions. During the primary treatment of sewage, solid particles that settle down are called

Regeneration of the cofactor NADPH is achieved by oxidation of a co-substrate using a suitable enzyme (Leuchs and Greiner 2011). Hugenholtz J, Kleerebezem M, Starrenburg M et al.

kefir ADH has also been reported for stereoselective reduction of several aliphatic and aromatic ketones as well as β-ketoesters to their corresponding alcohols with >99% enantiomeric excess (Weckbecker and Hummel 2006). Which one of the following alcoholic drinks is produced without distillation ?

(a) use of fertilisers and pesticides of biological origin In some LAB, fructose is used as a carbon source for growth as well as an electron acceptor, getting converted into mannitol using mannitol dehydrogenase (Fig. H2O2) because they have peroxidases. Tamilnadu Board Class 10 English Solutions, Tamilnadu Board Class 9 Science Solutions, Tamilnadu Board Class 9 Social Science Solutions, Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions, Biology MCQs for Class 12 Chapter Wise with Answers, Biology MCQs for Class 12 with Answers Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production, Biology MCQs for Class 12 with Answers Chapter 11 Biotechnology: Principles and Processes, MCQ Questions for Class 11 Biology with Answers Chapter Wise PDF Download, MCQ Questions for Class 11 Chemistry with Answers Chapter Wise PDF Download, MCQ Questions for Class 11 Physics with Answers Chapter Wise PDF Download, MCQ Questions for Class 11 Maths with Answers Chapter Wise PDF Download, Maths Formulas for Class 6 to Class 12 PDF | All Basic Maths Formulas. BOD of wastewater is estimated by measuring the amount of Christensen B, Olsen PB, Regueira TB et al. sake and Lb. Besides the inducible gene expression systems, the development of specific gene regulatory elements in LAB, such as synthetic promoter libraries (Jensen and Hammer 1998; Solem and Jensen 2002; Rud et al.2006), inducible promoters (e.g. (a) rumen of cattle (c) Yamuna Action Plan Fig. Lactic acid fermentation is subject to substrate inhibition, which has been overcome by performing fermentations in fed-batch mode with resultant high product yield and concentration (Bai et al.2004b; Ding and Tan 2006). jensenii and Lb. Biofertilisers are Overview of the propanediol-utilization pathway. They are distributed widely in the environment, particularly in feces of vertebrates. 1B) (Bosma, Forster and Nielsen 2017). The cofactor engineering strategy was also successfully employed for the production of acetaldehyde, yet another important aroma compound present in dairy products. From gut health to applications of CRISPR-Cas systems, this Thematic Issue of FEMS Microbiology Reviews presents a series of papers showcasing the cutting-edge research that is being conducted in this important and developing field. Morais S, Shterzer N, Grinberg IR et al.

The primary application of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is related to preservation of food, but increasing relevance and contribution of these microorganisms in diverse sectors of food and pharmacy industries are observed. Platteeuw C, Hugenholtz J, Starrenburg M et al. (a) citric acid (a) Ganga Action Plan However, the need for complex nutritional media for growth increases the production cost. At low pH when the growth and production were uncoupled, GRL89 produced 20% more lactic acid than GRL86, UV mutagenesis to enhance tolerance to glucose and lactate repression, 98.6 g/L L-lactic acid from 100 g/l glucose, volumetric productivity of 1.76 g/L.h, Genome shuffling by generating the starting population by UV and nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis, followed by recursive protoplast fusion. (a) killing insects (c) Chloramphenicol Several other LAB strains have since been found to be accessible to genetic modification, however with efficiencies lower than the paradigm strains of L. lactis and Lb. (c) vitamin B12, Question 8. This paper provides a concise review of this important group of microorganisms, including their diversity, metabolism and the strain development options along with examples of their use as biological catalysts utilizing a metabolic pathway or a single enzyme for food and non-food uses. The significance of pyruvate as an electron acceptor and of LDH catalyzed reduction to lactate in LAB have motivated many studies to understand the effect of inactivating LDH on the cells and also to reroute the carbon flow from pyruvate to another product through metabolic engineering of an alternative cofactor regeneration pathway. The nutritive medium for growing bacteria and many fungi in laboratory is called

(c) Xanthomonas campestris, Question 27.

Diacetyl is a strong buttery flavor formed in many dairy products like fresh cheeses, butter-milk, etc. Depleting the PK gene and overexpressing a heterologous transketolase gene in Lb. (b) increase BOD

Answer: (d) fertilisers prepared by mixing cattle dung with crop residues Genetic toolbox for gene modifications in LAB.

Kylä-Nikkilä K, Hujanen M, Leisola M et al.

Deletion of at least three of the four ldh genes was required to obtain a genetically stable strain for production of alternative reduced compounds (Gaspar et al.2011).

(c) Spirulina (a) inactivated sludge

Overexpression of the enzymes involved in the synthesis of intermediates such as phosphoglucomutase and UDP-glucose phosphorylase has led to varying levels of improvements in different LAB (Boels et al.2001; Levander, Svensson and Rådström 2002). helveticus, Lb. (b) chemical pesticides, Question 26. 7. (d) yeast, Question 37. Answer: (d) anaerobic sludge Synthesis of (R)-3-fluorophenyl-2-hydroxy propionic acid using D-LDH as catalyst in aqueous medium. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription.

(d) Azospirillum (b) biological control of soil-borne plant pathogens, Question 54. A nitrogen fixing microbe associated with the fern Azolla in rice fields is (a) Frankia Which of the following is widely used as a successful biofertiliser in Indian rice field ? (d) oxidation pond Sriramulu DD, Liang M, Hernandez-Romero D et al. Lactic acid is the main product from glucose in homofermentative LAB (Streptococcus, Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Pediococcus, and some Lactobacillus species) formed via the Embden–Meyerhof (EM) pathway that yields 2 mol pyruvate/mol glucose, which acts as an electron acceptor and is reduced to 2 mol lactic acid in a reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (Fig.

(c) culture media, Question 18. Red arrows indicate the different reactions of heterolactic acid fermentation through the PK pathway. The homofermentative bacteria, mainly Lactobacillus species, are used for industrial lactic acid production.

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